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% Created 2012-04-12 Thu 16:37
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\title{Free Software, Free Society}
\author{Milan Santosi}
\date{2012-04-12 Thu}
\hypersetup{
  pdfkeywords={},
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\begin{document}

\maketitle

\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Outline}
\setcounter{tocdepth}{3}
\tableofcontents
\end{frame}




\section{Introduction}
\label{sec-1}
\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Overview}
\label{sec-1-1}

\begin{itemize}
\item Understanding software
\item What are the four freedoms of free software?
\item What's the difference between Open Source and Free Software?
\end{itemize}
\end{frame}
\section{Considerations about Software}
\label{sec-2}

\begin{itemize}
\item Source Code is a work of authorship, similar but not identical to
  works of literature, a cooking recipe, or a musical piece.
\begin{itemize}
\item Side Note: Legally, works of authorship fall under Copyright.
\end{itemize}
\item Some form of Instruction set to make a machine do something.
\item Condensed knowledge, or information (hence IT).
\end{itemize}
\section{Considerations about Knowledge}
\label{sec-3}

\begin{itemize}
\item Information has unique, properties, it is not a real commodity and
  it cannot easily be contained.
\item From an economic point of view, knowledge is a positive externality.
\begin{itemize}
\item Software, like all knowledge, should be accessible in a democratic
    and nondiscriminatory way.
\end{itemize}
\end{itemize}
\section{Intellectual ``Property''?}
\label{sec-4}

\begin{itemize}
\item Umbrella term for copyright, patent, trademark and other
  categories law. Those have virtually nothing in common.
\item Commonly misused to actually mean anything.
\item Implies claim to ownership, in particular of ideas.
\end{itemize}
\section{Market implications}
\label{sec-5}

\begin{itemize}
\item In a free market economy monopolies are ususally dangerous and have
  to be avoided.
\begin{itemize}
\item Monopolies on public goods are really, really bad.
\end{itemize}
\item Software still generates economic value; however, most is generated
  by use, not sale of software.
\item Software patents are in effect monopolies on ideas.
\end{itemize}
  
\section{The Four Freedoms}
\label{sec-6}
\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Freedom 0}
\label{sec-6-1}

\begin{itemize}
\item You are free to run the program, for any purpose.
\begin{itemize}
\item Not as obvious as it might seem.
\end{itemize}
\end{itemize}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Freedom 1}
\label{sec-6-2}

\begin{itemize}
\item You are free to study how the program works, and change it so it
  does your computing as you wish. Access to the source code is a
  precondition for this.
\begin{itemize}
\item The user controls the software, not the other way around.
\end{itemize}
\end{itemize}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Freedom 2}
\label{sec-6-3}

\begin{itemize}
\item You are free to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor.
\begin{itemize}
\item Few people realize how important sharing is, in particular sharing
    of public goods. Contrary to common propaganda, ideas, techniques, stories,
    melodies, images etc. are NOT hurt by sharing. On the contrary,
    sharing keeps them alive.
\end{itemize}
\end{itemize}
\end{frame}
\begin{frame}
\frametitle{Freedom 3}
\label{sec-6-4}

\begin{itemize}
\item You are free to distribute copies of your modified versions to
  others. By doing this you can give the whole community a
  chance to benefit from your changes. Access to the source code is a
  precondition for this.
\end{itemize}
\end{frame}
\section{Open Source?}
\label{sec-7}

Openness of source is less decisive when one or more of the four
freedoms are formally or effectively taken away.
The term ``Open Source'' is usually used synonymous to Free Software, in
the past the term was coined to avoid misunderstandings. 
\section{Licensing}
\label{sec-8}
\begin{frame}
\frametitle{GPL}
\label{sec-8-1}

\begin{itemize}
\item Copyleft, restrictive, enforces all four freedoms.
\end{itemize}
\begin{itemize}

\item BSD
\label{sec-8-1-1}%
\begin{itemize}
\item Non-copyleft, permissive, not all rights have to be conserved.
\end{itemize}


\begin{itemize}
\item Perversion Software Patente: Wie etwas, das eigentlich Innovation foerdern soll genau das Gegenteil bewirkt.
\item Digital Restrictions Management (DRM):
\begin{itemize}
\item Defective by Design und Malicious Features. Beispiele: Amazon Kindle, ei-Phone, Skype, Spotify, Steam, Diverse unfreie Betriebssysteme
\item Probleme mit restriktiven Datenformaten: MP3, flash, docx, etc\ldots{}
\end{itemize}
\end{itemize}

\end{itemize} % ends low level
\end{frame}

\end{document}